Dominum Deum Nostrum Papam
Our Lord God the Pope

1508 edition of Extravagantes XX Johannis XXII

This edition as shown above, reads:

Credere autem dominum nostrum papam conditorem dictae dectretalis et istius, sic non potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.  (The sentence occurs in the page as indicated by the red arrow.)

But to believe that our lord the pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Sexti libri materia cu[m] capitulorum — Paris, 1508, Bavarian State Library Munich,
Extravagantes Title page — pg. 839
Pg. 944 — Folio liii verso (53-v)
Full volume .pdf download is 544 Mbytes. (See page 945)

1511 edition of Extravagantes XX Joannis XXI
Lyon, France

Credere autem dominum nostrum papam conditorem dictae dectretalis et istius, sic non potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.

But to believe that our lord the pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Clemens [Papa, V.]: Clementinaru[m] materia cu[m] capitulorum et titulo[rum] numero ([1511])
Bavarian State Library Munich
Folio 53-v — pg. 338.
Folio 53-v — pg. 484. Another printing.

1511 edition of Extravagantes viginti Johannis vigesimisecundi.
Basel, Switzerland

 Our Lord God the Pope in Latin is Dominum Deum nostrum Papam.
It is abbreviated to Dnm Deu nrm papa in the middle line, and indicated by the red arrow.*

Credere autem Dominum Deum nostrum Papam conditorem Dictae Dectretalis et istius, non sic potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.

But to believe that our Lord God the Pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Swiss Libraries Digital Collections Home page

Extravagantes viginti Johannis vigesimisecundi : Cum Interpretamentis Domini Zenzelini et Johannis Francisci de Pavinis : Sumulis suis et anotatioibus perpulchris : Additione in margine litterarum quo minusculi characteres lineis interpreti elarius legenti appareant, Basileae: Johannes Amorbach, Petri et Fröben, 1511. - pdf    Download — 162 mb  — at the University Library, Basel

          Title page
          Folio 34r closeup
          Folio 34r  pg. 67

          High resolution scans of another print of the same volume at the Bavarian State Library — Folio 34 pg. 67.

* Worth noting: A common form used in dating Latin documents:

The date is worded as follows Datum Rome in domibus (or aedibus) nostris (or nostrarum solitarum residentiarum) anno a nativitate domini... die vero (modern dating), pontificatus sanctissimi in Christo patris et domini nostri, domini [pope's name] divina providentia papae..., year... — The Documents of the Cardinals.

 ... in the time of the Pontificate of the most holy Father in Christ, the Father and Lord of our Lord [Pope's name] ...

Frequently "domini nostri, domini" is abbreviated as D. n. D. or D. N. D. and this abbreviation has been misinterpreted by some to stand for "domini nostri dei" (Lord our God the Pope, as in Papal Rome as it is, by a Roman; with an introduction by W. C. Brownlee, by L. Giustiniani, pg. 181.), but this is apparently an erroneous assumption.

The text in which this occurs is called the gloss, and it is the text on the margins, which in the above example, nearly fills the page. The gloss is not the main text of the work, but rather a commentary on the meaning, interpretation or significance of the main text. It is essentially an opinion supplied by the canonist, someone educated in canon law, and as such the gloss does not necessarily carry with it the authority of the main work. In this case the canonist was Zenzelinus De Cassanis (died 1334). Here is a discussion of the context of the issue from a Catholic viewpoint:

John XXII., in a decretal letter [the Bull "Cum inter nonnullos", 12 November, 1323], condemned a doctrine which exaggerated to the point of heresy the counsel of Evangelical Poverty. This decretal is incorporated as Title xiv. into the Extravagantes Joannis XXII., a collection of Papal Letters which finds place in the Corpus Juris. The collection is authoritative, but, like the rest of the Corpus Juris, it has bound up with it a valued though unauthoritative commentary, or gloss. The glosses to the Corpus Juris are from different canonists of repute, the gloss on the portion with which we are concerned having for its author a certain Zenzelinus. Zenzelinus, in the course of this comment on Title xiv., after discussing the Pope's meaning in the decretal, finishes by adding that it would be heretical to deny the Pope's power to make such a decree: ...

The rest can be read in Publications of the Catholic Truth Society, Volume 29, 1896, Does the Pope Claim to be God, by Rev. Sydney F. Smith S. J., beginning at the bottom of page 14. Smith makes the case that this is nothing more than a copiest error, and as he points out, the Vatican's edition does not contain the word Deum. An enquiry made to the Vatican Library in 2004 determined that the original 14th century manuscripts in their possession read "dominum nostrum papam", but that another edition from the end of the 16th century did read "Dominum Deum nostrum Papam." Now, if you think this the obvious explanation, I encourage you to read on. This issue has a fascinating history behind it.

    ... "the commentators even gave the pope the blasphemous appellation of Our Lord God The Pope." Two hundred years ago this charge was brought against the commentators, and two hundred years ago it was triumphantly refuted. You probably have copied it, at first or second hand, from the Glossâ final. cap. cum inter Extra. Joan. xxii. Father Eudaemon Joannes, in his Apology for Father Garnet, [Apologia pro Henrico Garnetto, ad Actionem Cocqui] published in 1610, informs us, that "in the passage in question, he found the word Deum, (God), in some editions of the Gloss, and omitted in others; that he therefore resolved to consult the Zenzelini manuscript at the Vatican, which," he says, "might be seen every day;" and that "he found that the real reading was, DOMINUM NOSTRUM PAPAM," — OUR LORD THE POPE. After this explanation, you will assuredly agree with me, that there is not greater reason to charge the commentators on the Corpus Juris Canonici, with giving to the pope the appellation of God, than to charge the church of England with legalizing adultery, because, in some copies of the English Bible, the word " not" is omitted in the commandment against adultery.  —  The book of the Roman-Catholic Church: By Charles Butler, Robert Southey, Second Edition, 1825, pg. 130.

    This blasphemous statement, which has been the subject of controversy in your journal of late, occurs in the gloss upon the Extravagant of John XXII., entitled "Cum Inter. "... The "learned ecclesiastic," whose communication appears in to-day's Post, suggests that it was a printer's blunder. This is, however, simply impossible, as I can specify, if required, no less than ten editions which contain it, and those printed at different places. Besides, it is well known that Pope Gregory XIII. appointed a commission, in 1582, to prepare a new edition of the Canon Law. The ecclesiastical commissioners were directed to "revise, correct, and expurgate" not only the text, but the glosses. Yet the edition thus prepared, and which is to the present day the standard edition, retained the objectionable words, without the slightest intimation of anything being wrong. Accordingly other editions published since that date, and which are printed according to the Roman corrected copy, agree in reading—"Our Lord God the Pope" I may name the following instances: — That of Lyons, 1584: and those of Paris, 1585, 1601, and 1612. The "learned ecclesiastic" broaches an idea as to the expression having sprung from the ancient practice of contracting words, but allow me to remind him that the contractions to which he refers had gone out of use very long before the date of the above Papal revision. The Bulwark, or Reformation Journal, Vol. 10, Dec 1, 1860, pg. 164.

    "... And lest some Eudemon should object to us that the word 'God' ought to be regarded as an error of the printer, we would have him know that the omission of the word is rather to be esteemed so. For this is the state of the case. Gregory the Thirteenth appointed certain cardinals and others to revise and correct the Gloss of the Jus Canonicum, wherever it was needed. While, then, many editions had the word 'God,' and some had it not, the new and corrected edition of the pontifical correctors of the press, which came out under the sanction of Gregory the Thirteenth, restored the word which had been omitted by the mistake of the printers.  . . .  Nor is any change made in this point in the censures of the Gloss of the Jus Canonicum edited by command of Pius the Fifth*," p. 310. The Rainbow, A Magazine of Christian Literature, Oct 1, 1865, pg. 468-469.

* F. Tommaso Manrique (Manrique, Tom´s), Censura in glossas et additiones iuris canonici, omnibus exemplaribus hactenus excusis, respondens. Librorum, titulorum et capitulorum numerus omnibus paginarum vero Lugdun. et Venet. Codicibus post annum 1553 impressis, respondet. Romae, Apud Haeredes Julii Accolti, M. D. LXXII. (1572), Die 22. Augusti.

    In 1578, Pope Gregory XIII formally appointed a small commission of learned cardinals and other clerics, generally referred to as the Correctores Romani, to set about the task of editing the Decretum. From the early 1570s at least, scholars working under papal auspices had been preparing the way. They had gone through the Vatican's manuscripts, then sent letters out across Catholic Europe, asking for the loan of, or copies of, manuscripts of Gratian and earlier canonical collections, seeking to collect the best examples local churches could provide. Responses came from curia cardinals, from remote Spanish monasteries, from beleaguered prelates in the Low Countries. The Correctores worked their way though the texts of the Decretum, collating the manuscripts, comparing and discussing variant readings they encountered, and keeping copious notes as they chose the readings they thought most accurate for the new edition. That Roman edition, published in 1582 with Gregory XIII's letter of authorization as its preface, became the standard text within the Catholic world. The Treatise on Laws (Decretum Dd. 1-20) With the Ordinary Gloss, copyright 1993, The Catholic University of America, pg. xix.

    It is quite as certain that the Popes have never reproved or rejected this title, for the passage in the gloss referred to, appears in the edition of the Canon Law, published at Rome in 1580, by Gregory XIII., and the "Index Expurgatorius" of Pius V., which orders the erasure of other passages, yet leaves this one. — Tentativa theologica: Episcopal rights and ultramontane usurpations by Fr. António Pereira de Figueiredo, Priest and Doctor of Lisbon, translated from the original Portuguese, with notes, and some additional matter by the Rev. Edward H. Landon, M.A. ... London, 1847, pg. 180. Here is the book in Portuguese. The above wording, though, comes from the appendix Pereira published later, Appendix, E Illustracaō Da Tentativa Theologica, Sobre O Poder Dos Bispos em tempo de Rotura, seu autor Antonio Pereira ... Lisboa, 1768, pgs. 123-124. Also at Bavarian State Library.

The point being made is that Pius V (1566-1572) did not order the word Deum be removed from the gloss, and in the corrected and approved edition published under Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585), Deum was present (See Corpus Juris Canonici - Principle Editions). That corrected and approved "editio Romana" edition, directed by Pope Gregory XIII and printed in 1582 & 1584 in Rome itself, is presented below, and it does indeed read Dominum Deum nostrum Papam, as does the 1584 Lyons edition as mentioned above (in 2 different typesets). As can be seen, 8 editions presented here are confirmed as using the word "Deum". Note also that the editions presented here with "Deum", are all different typesets from one year to another, each requiring a proofing of its own for errors.  The standard of accuracy for subsequent printings being the "In Aedibus Populi Romani" edition, as subsequent editions dutifully state — "ad exemplar Romanum diligenter recognitum" (and diligently compared with the Roman text). And as shown above, Deum was already present in the 1511 printing, so it was not introduced in just a late untrustworthy edition, and it continued to appear in perhaps as many as 10 printings over a span of a hundred years or more, 1612 apparently being the last.

1511 1543 1556 1582 1584 1585 1600 1601 1605 1606 1612
Basel Lyon Lyon Rome Rome Paris Venice Paris Venice Lyon Paris
        Lyon x 2            

In the tables, editions confirmed to use "Deum" are in red.
Editions that are claimed to use "Deum", but are unconfirmed, are black.

Antwerp 1584      
Basel 1511      
Lyon 1543 1556 1584 x 2 1606
Paris 1585 1601 1612  
Rome 1582 1584  
Venice 1600 1605    

NOTE: The many references on the web to "Cum. Inter, tit XIV Ad Callem Sexti Decretalium, Paris, 1685" are apparently in error as to the date.  The original source was likely The Works of John Jewel, Vol. 1, 1845, Pg. 96, which references the Paris edition of 1585, as mentioned above also.

Extravagantes XX Joannis vigesimisecundi. - Lyon — 1543

Credere autem dominum Deum nostrum papam conditorem dictae dectretalis et istius, sic non potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.

But to believe that our lord God the pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Clementinae Clementis Quinti Constitutiones : quas Clementinas vocant / ab Egidio Perrino ... dilige[n]ter recognitae ... cum summarijs, casibus notabilibus ... ac additionibus, tam ex Ioannis Imolae, quam Petri Ancharani, Zabarellae ... aliorumque doctorum commentarijs, collectis, Lugduni : apud Hugonem, & Haeredes Aemonis a Porta, 1543, Biblioteca Virtual de la Rioja. (Visual index link 19, scroll down to 227 (folio 34r), click on the image to view or the download icon to download.)

Utilitas Extravagantium
Lyon — 1553

Sextvs Liber Decretalivm Cvm Epitomis, diuisionibus, & Glossa ordinaria Do. Io. Andre, vna cum vtilibus additionibus nouissime recognitus, & infinitis prope mendis purgatus studio & industria clarissimi Iureconsulti Parisiensis VV. Doctoris celeberrimi ... Lyon, 1553, Bavarian State Library Munich, pg. 107.

Credere autem dominum nostrum papam conditorem dictae dectretalis et istius, sic non potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.

But to believe that our lord the pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Utilitas Extravagantium — Venice — 1567

Sextus Decretalium liber / a Bonifacio octavo in concilio Lugdunensi editus ; cum epitomis, divisionibus & glossa ordinaria Io. andreae una cum... additionibus nouissime recognitus... Venetiis : [s.n.], 1567, turn to pg. 107 (422 in the djvu reader)  — University of Zaragoza

This edition does not include the word Deum, and while the glossa ordinaria is attributed to another canonist, Io. Andreae, the end of that section of gloss, at the bottom of that page, still bears the name of Zenzelinus.

Credere autem dominum nostrum papam conditorem dictae dectretalis et istius, sic non potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.

But to believe that our lord the pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Utilitas Extravagantium
Constitutiones XX Joannis Papae XXII:
cum apparatu Zenzelini de Cassanis — 1582 — Rome


Credere autem Dominum Deum nostrum Papam conditorem dictae dectretalis et istius, sic non potuisse statuere prout statuit, haereticum censeretur.

But to believe that our Lord God the Pope, the establisher of said decretal, and of this, could not decree, as he did decree, should be accounted heretical. - translation source.

Home UCLA Library Digital Collections - Corpus Juris Canonici (1582)

Volume 1 Title page — Decretum Gratiani — Gregorius Papa XIII — 1582 — Romae
Volume 2 Title page — Decretales D. Gregorii Papae IX — 1582 — Romae
Volume 3 No Title Page — Liber Sextus Decretalium

Extravagantes Tum Viginti D. Joannis Papae XXII:
Una cum Glossis Restitutae — 1584 — Rome

This is a second printing of the official "In Aedibus Populi Romani" edition.
Goettingen State and University Library, pg. 961, - 107.

Constitutiones XX Joannis Papae XXII:
cum apparatu Zenzelini de Cassanis — 1584 — Lyon

University of Grenada
Contitutiones XX: title pg. 580,
Cols. 147-148 pg. 651
.pdf download

Below is a second 1584 edition, with a different typeset.

Liber Sextus, Decretalium, Lugduni (Lyon), 1584, Cols. 153-154, pg. 700, .pdf download  — University of Grenada

Liber Sextus, Decretalium, Venetiis, 1600, pg. 107.

Liber Sextus, Decretalium, Venetiis, 1605, pg. 107.


In the next section of the official 1582 edition of Catholic Canon Law, we find the text of a papal bull that is the subject of much controversy, even among Catholics themselves, as many consider it to be an infallible magisterial pronouncement:

Igitur ecclesiae unius et unicae unum corpus, unum caput, non duo capita, quasi monstrum, Christus videlicet et Christi vicarius, Petrus, Petrique successor, dicente Domino ipsi Petro: ... Quicunque igitur huic potestati a Deo sic ordinatae resistit, Dei ordinationi resistit, nisi duo, sicut Manichaeus, fingat esse principia, quod falsum et haereticum judicamus, quia, testante Moyse, non in principiis, sed in principio coelum Deus creavit et terram. Porro subesse Romano Pontifici omni humanae creaturae declaramus dicimus, definimus et pronunciamus omnino esse de necessitate salutis.

Therefore, of the one and only Church there is one body and one head, not two heads like a monster; that is, Christ and the Vicar of Christ, Peter and the successor of Peter, ... Therefore whoever resists this power thus ordained by God, resists the ordinance of God [Rom 13:2], unless he invent like Manicheus two beginnings, which is false and judged by us heretical, since according to the testimony of Moses, it is not in the beginnings but in the beginning that God created heaven and earth [Gen 1:1]. Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.

Corpus Juris Canonici, Extravagantes Communes, book I, title 8, chapter I.  De majoritate et obedientia, col. 202, Unam Sanctam, Bull of Pope Boniface VIII promulgated November 18, 1302, (Unam Sanctam in English and Latin). In the gloss by French canonist Petrus Bertrandus (Peter Bertrand 1280-1349) for the last sentence of Unam Sanctam, we find this:

Christus commissit summo Pontifici vices suas, (ut habetur Matth. 16. cap. et 24. q I. quodcumque.) Sed Christo data erat omnis potestas in caelo et in terra (Matth. 28.) ergo summus Pontifex qui est ejus vicarius habebit hanc potestatem. (Liber Extra, de transla episc. ca. Quanto personam.) — Corpus Juris Canonici, 1582 edition, Vol. III, Extravagantes Communes, lib. 1. De majoritate et obed. (On Authority and Obedience), title 8, c. 1., gloss on  Unam Sanctam, verb. Porro subesse Romano Pontifici,  col. 212.

Christ entrusted his office to the chief Pontiff; (Mat 16:18, Mat 24:45) but all power in heaven and in earth had been given to Christ; (Mat. 28:18) therefore the chief Pontiff, who is his vicar, will have this power. (Translation source) See also Mysterious Quote Regarding Pope Found!

So, Christ and the Pope are a single head. This sentiment is the same as that expressed in Our Lord God the Pope. (This hyperbole, as some would deem it, that easily crosses the line to blasphemy, is not uncommon among some Catholics.  See Sweet Christ on Earth.)

Jan Hus, burned at the stake in 1415 for heresy, wrote:

Eph. 1:20 [-23]: “Which God wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every name which is named not only in this world but also in the world which is to come, and has put all things under his feet and gave him to be head over all things to the church, which is his body.”

From this it is clear that, if any Christian were to be the head of the universal church with Christ (for the church cannot be a monster having two, as is set forth in Boniface VIII’s bull, beginning Unam sanctam, therefore, the bull says, “the church is one body and has one head, not two heads, like a monster”), it would be necessary to concede that the Christian who was the head of that church was Christ himself, or otherwise it would be necessary to concede that Christ is inferior to that Christian and a lowly member of him. The conclusion shows that the thing is impossible. Hence, the holy apostles agreed in confessing that they were servants of that one Head and humble ministers of the church, his bride. No one of the apostles ever presumed to claim that he was the head or the bridegroom of the church, ... — The Church by John Huss (1411). Translated, with Notes and Introduction by David S. Schaff, D.D. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915), Chapter 4, Christ The Only Head Of The Church.

Satis evidenter & Donation of Constantine

In Volume 1 of the same 1582 corrected and approved "In Aedibus Populi Romani" edition of Decretum Gratiani, Pope Nicholas I, in a letter to Emperor Michael, says:

Satis evidenter ostenditur, a saeculari potestate nec ligari prorsus nec solvi posse Pontificem; quem constat a pio principe Constantino (quod longe superius memoravimus) Deum appellatum: nec posse Deum ab hominibus judicari manifestum est.

It is evidently enough shown that the Pontiff, whom it is clear was called God by the pious Prince Constantine (which we have related above), cannot be bound nor loosed by the secular power: and it is manifest that God cannot be judged by men.

See Decretum Gratiani, Decreti Prima Pars, Distinctio 96, C. vii — Cols. 619-620, pg. 378.

Just 2 pages more, in the same volume, we find the Donation of Constantine, and the title vicarius filii dei:

See Decretum Gratiani, Decreti Prima Pars, Distinctio 96, C. xiiii — Cols. 623-624, pg. 380.

The Pope and the Council

... a saying ascribed to Constantine, at the Council of Nice, in a legend recorded by Rufinus, was amplified till it was fashioned into a perfect mine of high-flying pretensions. Constantine, according to this fable, when the written accusations of the bishops against each other were laid before him, burned them, saying, in allusion to a verse of the Psalter, that the bishops were gods, and no man could dare to judge them. Nicolas I. quoted this to the Emperor Michael.2 Anselm adopted the story into his collection, Gratian followed, and Gregory himself found in it clear evidence that he, the Pope, the bishop of bishops, stood in unapproachable majesty over all monarchs of the earth. For, as the passage stood in Anselm and Gratian, it was the Pope whom Constantine called a god, and so it has been understood and explained ever since. 3

    2 Mansi, xv. 215.
    3Dist. 96, c. 7. "Satis evidenter ostenditur a saeculari potestate nec ligari prorsus nec solvi posse Pontificem, quern constat a pio Principe Constantino Deum appellatum, nec posse Deum ab hominibus judicari manifestum est."

The Pope and the Council by Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger, pg. 89.

Psa 82:1 A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods.
Psa 82:6 I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are children of the most High.

See also The British quarterly review, Volume LXI (61), April, 1875, Art. VI.— Ultramontanism and Civil Allegiance, pgs. 457-459, for more on the inflation of Constantine's remarks at the council of Nicea.

The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe

    All the earth is my diocese; and I the ordinary of all men, having the authority of the King of all kings upon subjects. I am all in all, and above all, so that God himself, and I the vicar of God, have both one consistory,190  and I am able to do almost all that God can do, 'clave non errante!'191 Item, It is said of me that I have a heavenly arbitrement,192 and therefore am able to change the nature of things, 'substantialia unius applicando alteri,' and of nothing to make things to be; and of a sentence that is nothing, to make it stand in effect; in all things that I list, my will to stand for reason: for I am able by the law to dispense above the law, and of wrong to make justice, in correcting laws and changing them.
    You have heard hitherto sufficiently out of my doctors. Now you shall hear greater things out of mine own decrees. Read there dist. 96. cap.7. 'Satis.' 193  Also Caus. 11. q. 1. cap. 41. 'Sacerdotibus. 194  Also Caus. 12. q. 1. cap. 15. 'Futuram.' 195  Do not you find there expressed, how Constantine the emperor, sitting in the general council at Nice, called us prelates of the church all 'gods'?  Again, read my canon decretal, De transl. episc. cap. 'Quanto.' 196  Do you not see there manifestly expressed, how not man, but God alone separateth that which the bishop of Rome doth dissolve and separate? Wherefore, if those things that I do, be said to be done not of man, but of God ; what can you make me but God? aa Again, if prelates of the church be called and counted of Constantine for gods, I then, being above all prelates, seem by this reason to be above all gods. Wherefore no marvel, if it be in my power to change time and times, to alter and abrogate laws, to dispense with all things, yea with the precepts of Christ:± for, where Christ biddeth Peter put up his sword, and admonished his disciples not to use any outward force in revenging themselves, do not I, Pope Nicholas, writing to the bishops of France, exhort them to draw out their material swords in pursuing their enemies, and recovering their possessions; setting against the precept of Christ, the prophet saying, "Dissolve colligationes impietatis!" &c.197[Isa 58:6 ... to loose the bands of wickedness ...]

(188) Gloss, in caus. 11. q. 3. c. 14. 'Absit.'
(189) Gloss, in caus. 11. q. 3. 'Si inimicus.'
(190) Hostiensis [Henricus de Segusia] in c. 'Quanto de transl. praeb.'  [Lectura ad Decretales, I. vii. 3: "Consistorium Dei et papae unum et idem est censendum."] See below also.
(191) Ex summa casuum fratris Baptista.
(192) Ex Citatione Henr. Bulling, de fine Seculi. orat. prima. [1st sermon pgs. 55-56]+
         Item, ex Citatione Jacobi Andreas, adversus Hossum, lib. v.
         Item, ex Citatione Hier. Marii in actis [secundi Diei, p. 180: Causa xvii. q. 4. c. 30.]
(193) Pope Nicolaus, Dist. 96. c. 7 'Satis.'
(194) [Causa] 11. q. 41. 'Sacerdotibus.'
(195) [Causa] 12. q. l. ' Futurum.'
(196) Decretal. [Greg. IX.] de Transl. [lib. i. tit. 7.] c. 3. 'Quanto.'
(aa) Thus you may see it verified, that St. Paul prophesieth, of the adversary sitting in the temple as God and boasting himself above all that is named God, &c. 2 Thess. 11.
(197) Pope Nicolaus, Causa 15, q. 6. c. 'Autoritatem.'

— The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe, Volume 4, Part 1, 1856, by John Foxe (1516-1587), pgs. 159-160.

+ De fine saeculi et judicio venturo Domini nostri Jesu Christi, deque periculis nostri hujus seculi corruptissimi gravissimis, et qua ratione fiant innoxia piis; orationes duae, habitre in coetu cleri per Heinrychum Bullingerum. Basil. 1557. [These sermons on Matt. xxiv., Dan. vii., and 2 Tim. iii., were preached, the former 12 Sept. 1555, and the latter 28 January, 1557. They were "englished by Thomas Potter;" and "imprinted at London, at the long shop in the Pultrie, by John Allde."

Bullinger, Heinrich, & Potter, Thomas, Of the end of the world and iudgement of our Lord Iesus Christe to come, and of the moste perillous dangers of this our moste corrupt age, and by what meanes the godly may auoid the harmes thereof, sermons preached in latin in the assembly of the clergie by Henry Bullinger, and now lately englished by Thomas Potter. by John Allde, Imprinted at London. 1580.

± Note carefully that this is John Foxe expressing in his words the likely thoughts of the pope out loud. It is not a direct papal quote, but a synthesis of the extrapolated meaning of the referenced documents found in canon law as listed.  Essentially the same information and similar wording is found in Illustrations of Popery: The "Mystery of Iniquity" Unveiled: J. P. Callendar, 1838, pgs. 209-210. This is frequently misquoted and attributed to "Decretal. de Tranlatic Episcop Cap". In Quanto personam, Pope Innocent III actually asserts that only the Roman Pontiff has the power to transfer and separate bishops. It was a letter addressed to five bishops in Germany regarding Conrad of Querfurt, a bishop who had transferred himself, without papal permission, from Hildesheim (Hildesemensis) to Würzburg (Herbipolensis). The key sentence, in which divine authority to govern the church in such matters is claimed solely for the Bishop of Rome, reads:

Non enim homo, sed Deus separat, quos Romanus Pontifex (qui non puri hominis, sed veri Dei vicem gerit in terris) ecclesiarum necessitate vel utilitate pensata, non humana, sed divina potius auctoritate dissolvit.

God, not man, separates [a bishop from his Church] because the Roman Pontiff does not exercise the office of a man, but of the true God on earth, carefully considering the need and usefulness of each translation, he dissolves the bond by divine rather than by human authority.

See 196 above.  Also, the placement of footnotes above has been changed from the original, from leading to trailing, for clarity.

The adjacent gloss in column 217 for "veri Dei vicem" in
Decretal. [Greg. IX.] de Transl. [lib. i. tit. 7.] c. 3. 'Quanto', adds the following regarding the scope of the Pope's authority as God's true vice governor:

veri Dei vicem (gerit).]

Unde dicitur habere caeleste arbitrium ( [Justinian Code] Cod. de sum. tri. 1. I. in fi.),
Whence he is said to possess a divine judgment,

et ideo etiam naturam rerum immutat, substantialia unius rei applicando alii (arg. C. communia de leg. l. 2),
and therefore he altereth the very nature of things, by applying the things that are of the substance of one thing unto another,

et de nullo potest aliquid facere
(C. rei uxor. act. l. unica in prin. et De Consecr. Dist. 2. c. 69, Cols. 2549-2550),
and of nothing he can make something; [to make something out of nothing is to construct new laws];

et sententiam, quae nulla est, facit aliquam
(Caus. III. Qu. 6. c. 10); Haec quippe, Cols. 979-980.
and that sentence which is of no force he can make to be of force;

quia in his, quae vult, ei est pro ratione voluntas
(Instit. de jure natu. § sed quod principi. Haec quippe.)
and he can do these things, because his will stands for reason.

Nec est, qui ei dicat, cur ita facis?
(De Poen. Dist. 3. c. 22. ex psona. alias est in c. Quamuis, Cols. 2309-2310)
Neither is there any may say unto him, Why dost thou so?

Ipse enim potest supra jus dispensare
(infra, Lib. III. Tit. 8. c. 4, j. de conces. prae. c. Proposuit. Cols. 1069-1070)
for he can dispense above the law,

idem de injustitia potest facere justitiam corrigendo jura et mutando
(Lib. II. Tit. 28. c. 59.,  j. de appella c. Vt debitus., Cols. 959-960,
 Lib. IV. Tit. 14. c. 8
, et j. de cosang. et affinit. cap. Non debet., Cols. 1513-1514)
and of unrighteousness make righteousness, correcting and changing laws,

et plenitudinem obtinet potestatis
(Caus. II. Qu. 6. c. 11) Decreto, Cols. 869-870:
for he hath the fullness of power.

The references in the gloss are supplied in:

A Compendium of Ecclesiastical History, by Dr. John C. L. Gieseler, Fourth Edition Revised And Amended, Volume III, 1853, translated from the German by the Rev. John Winstanley Hull, M.A. pg. 161.

The English translation of the gloss is primarily from:

The Decades of Henry Bullinger, The Fifth Decade, By Heinrich Bullinger, Translated By H. I., 1852, pg. 121.

See also:

Liber Sextus, Book 1, Titulus 6: De electione et electi potestate, c. xvii: Fundamenta, col. 129. (col. 132, Romani Pontificis vicarii Dei, & footnotes z & t)

A Sketch Of The Romish Controversy By G. Finch, London, 1831, pg. 318. This book incorrectly reads "Ipse enim potest s. jus dispensare" in the gloss as "Ipse enim potest sanctum jus dispensare" (for he can dispense with holy laws,). The referenced section in the gloss to Lib. III shows that "supra" (for he can dispense above the law,) is correct.

Agostino Trionfo of Ancona (Augustinus Triumphus) 1243-1328 A.D.
Summa de potestate ecclesiastica (Summary On The Power Of The Church)

Question 6 Ad 1:

    Secunda ratio accipitur ex parte Papae. solus Papa dicitur esse Vicarius Dei: quia solum quod ligatur vel solvitur per eum, habetur solutum et ligatum per ipsum Deum. Sententia igitur Papae et sententia Dei vna sententia est: sicut una sententia est Papae, et auditoris eius. Cum igitur appellatio semper fiat a minori iudice ad superiorem, sicut nullus est major seipso: ita nulla appellatio tenet, facta a Papa ad Deum: quia unum consistorium est ipsius Papae et ipsius Dei: cuius consistorij clauiger et ostiarius est ipse Papa. Nullus ergo potest appellare a Papa ad Deum. Nullus ergo potest appellare a Papa ad Deum, sicut nulla potest intrare ad consistorium Dei, nisi mediante Papa, qui est aeternae vitae cónsistorij clauiger, et ostiarius et sicut nullus pot appellare ad se ipsum: ita nullas pót appellare à Papa ad Deu. quia vna sententia est, et vna curia Dei, et Pape.

    Second reason considering the role of the Pope. Only the Pope is said to be the Vicar of God: because he alone is able to bind and loose, possessing alone loosing and binding given to him by God. The decision of the Pope and the decision of God constitute one decision, just as the decision of the Pope and his disciple are the same. Since, therefore, an appeal is always taken from an inferior judge to a superior, as no one is greater than himself, so no appeal holds when made from the Pope to God, because there is one consistory of the Pope himself and of God Himself, of which consistory the Pope himself is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper. Therefore no one can appeal from the Pope to God, as no one can enter into the consistory of God without the mediation of the Pope, who is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper of the consistory of eternal life; and as no one can appeal to himself, so no one can appeal from the Pope to God, because there is one decision and one court of God, and the Pope. (Translation source)

Question 9: De Exhibitione Honoris Papae. (pg. 71, 1582 edition.)
Displaying honor to the Pope.

Articulus 1:
Utrum honor, qui debetur Christo secundum quod Deus, debeatur Papae.
Whether the honor due Christ as God is due the Pope.

Ad Primum sic proceditur. Videtur enim, quod honor, qui debetur Christo secundum, quod Deus debeatur Papae. Quia honor debetur potestati: sed una est potestas Christi secundum quod Deus, et Papae. quod probatur.

So proceeding on the first point. It is to be seen as fact that the honor that is due Christ as God is due also to the Pope: because the honor is due the power, and the power of Christ as God and the [power of the] Pope are one, which is shown to be true.


Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621), a Doctor of the Church, in his Disputationes de controversiis christianae fidei, Adversus hujus temporis Haereticos (Debates on the Christian Controversies of Faith Against Contemporary Heresy), claimed that all the names that Scripture applies to Christ are also to be applied to the Pope. In Volume 2, LIBER SECVUNDUS, De Conciliorum auctoritate (Book 2, The Authority of Councils) we find the following:

Summam Pontificem absolute esse supra Concilium.

TERTIA propositio. ...
    SECUNDO probatur ratione, in scripturis fundata: nam omnia nomina, quae in scripturis tribuuntur Christo, unde constat eum esse supra Ecclesiam, eadem omnia tribuuntur Pontifici: ac primum, Christus est paterfamilias in domo sua, quae est Ecclesia, Pontifex in eadem, est summus oeconomus, id est, paterfamilias loco Christi, Lucae 12. — Bellarmini, Disputationes, Tom. II, Lib. II, De Conciliorum auctoritate, Cap. XVII, col. 95, 1608, Paris.  A 1613 printing.

The Supreme Pontiff is absolutely above a Council.

THIRD proposition: ...
    SECOND it is proved by an argument, founded in the scriptures: for all the names, which in the scriptures are applied to Christ, proving him to be above the Church, are in like manner applied to the Pontiff: as first, Christ is head of the family in his own house, which is the Church. The Pontiff is high steward in the same, that is, he is head of the family in the place of Christ, Luke 12:42. (Translation source) (See this Vatican portrait of Benedict XVI titled "The Truth, The Way and The Life".)

John 14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

Luke 12:42 And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?

As the translator alludes to, all attempts to apply Luke 12:42 (and Matt. 24:45) to the papacy are easily "exploded", when the long history of persecution by the Roman Catholic Church is considered:

Luke 12:45 But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;
Luke 12:46 The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.

Mat 24:48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;
Mat 24:49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;
Mat 24:50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,
Mat 24:51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Dan 7:25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

Rev 13:4 And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?
Rev 13:5 And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.
Rev 13:6 And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.
Rev 13:7 And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
Rev 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.

In the papal bull Unam Sanctam, in which Pope Boniface VIII claimed Christ and the Pope are a single head, he also claimed control over both the temporal civil sword, and the spiritual sword:

We are informed by the texts of the gospels that in this Church and in its power are two swords; namely, the spiritual and the temporal. For when the Apostles say: 'Behold, here are two swords' [Lk 22:38] that is to say, in the Church, since the Apostles were speaking, the Lord did not reply that there were too many, but sufficient. Certainly the one who denies that the temporal sword is in the power of Peter has not listened well to the word of the Lord commanding: 'Put up thy sword into thy scabbard' [Mt 26:52]. Both, therefore, are in the power of the Church, that is to say, the spiritual and the material sword, but the former is to be administered for the Church but the latter by the Church; the former in the hands of the priest; the latter by the hands of kings and soldiers, but at the will and sufferance of the priest.

However, one sword ought to be subordinated to the other and temporal authority, subjected to spiritual power. For since the Apostle said: 'There is no power except from God and the things that are, are ordained of God' [Rom 13:1-2], but they would not be ordained if one sword were not subordinated to the other and if the inferior one, as it were, were not led upwards by the other. (Unam Sanctam in English and Latin).

Scripture prophesied that this blasphemous persecuting power would be killed by the very sword it wielded against the saints:

Rev 13:10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.

See also Pope Enthroned Between Cherubim, Showing himself that he is God.
and Time, Times, and Half a Time